Posts Tagged ‘Ultrasonography’
Symptoms and signs of ovarian cancer
Ovarian cancer can cause many different signs and symptoms. Women are more likely to have symptoms if the disease has spread beyond the ovaries. However, even ovarian cancer early can cause symptoms. The most common symptoms include:
Pain in the pelvis or abdomen.
Difficulty eating or feeling of fullness when eating fast.
Urinary symptoms such as urgency (constant feeling of having to urinate) and frequency (having to urinate often).
These symptoms may be caused by benign (not cancerous) and cancer of other organs. When caused by ovarian cancer, these symptoms tend to be persistent and represent a change from what is normal. For example, symptoms may be more severe or occur more frequently. If a woman has these symptoms almost daily for more than several weeks should consult their doctor, preferably a gynecologist.
Other symptoms of ovarian cancer may include:
Pain during sexual intercourse.
Changes in menstruation.
However, it is more likely that these symptoms are caused by other conditions, and occur almost as frequently in women without ovarian cancer
If there is any reason to suspect you might have ovarian cancer, your doctor will use one or more procedures to be absolutely sure that this is the disease and to determine the stage of cancer.
Ultrasonography (ultrasound) uses sound waves to create an image on a video screen. A small probe placed in the vagina or on the abdomen of a woman emits sound waves. These sound waves create echoes as they enter the ovaries and other organs. The same probe detects the echoes that bounce, and a computer translates the pattern of echoes and converts it into an image. Because ovarian tumors and normal ovarian tissue often reflect sound waves in different ways, this test may be useful for finding tumors and determine whether a lump is solid or fluid-filled cyst.
CT is an X-ray procedure that produces detailed cross-sectional images of the body. Instead of taking a photograph, as does conventional radiography, a CT scanner takes many pictures as it rotates around you. A computer then combines these images and forms the image of a section of the body. The machine takes pictures of multiple sections of the body area being studied.
This test can help determine if cancer has spread to the liver or other organs. This study is useful because it shows how big the tumor, what other organs may be affected, whether lymph nodes are enlarged and if the kidneys or bladder have been affected by cancer.
You may be asked to take one or two pints of a liquid called oral contrast “before the CT. This helps outline the intestine so that is not going to miss tumors. It is also possible that you apply an intravenous line through which is injected a different kind of contrast dye. This helps better outline structures in your body.
Barium enema X-ray
This test aims to determine whether the cancer has invaded the colon (large intestine) or rectum (also used to detect colorectal cancer). After taking laxatives the day before the test, the radiology technician introduces barium sulfate, a substance limestone in the rectum and colon. Because barium is impermeable to X-rays, details the structures of the colon and rectum on the x-ray of the abdomen. This test is rarely used in women with ovarian cancer. Instead of this test, you can do a colonoscopy.
Magnetic resonance imaging
MRI scans use radio waves and strong magnets instead of x-ray The energy of radio waves is absorbed and then released, forming a pattern that depends on the type of tissue and by certain diseases. A computer translates the pattern of radio waves received by the tissues into a very detailed image of parts of the body. Magnetic resonance imaging not only produce cross-sectional images of body as well as computed tomography, but also occur along sections of its body. Vein can be injected contrast material (as in CT). It is not often used to detect ovarian cancer.
MRI tests are particularly useful in examining the brain and spinal cord. MRI exams last longer than CT scans, often up to 30 minutes or more. In addition, you will be placed inside a tube that restricted and can be annoying for people who feel anguish at being in closed places (claustrophobia). The machine also makes a thumping noise that might cause discomfort. Some centers provide headphones with music to block this noise
You may have a chest radiograph to determine whether ovarian cancer has spread (it has metastasized) to the lungs. This spread may cause one or more tumors in the lungs and often leads to the accumulation of fluid around the lungs. This fluid, called pleural effusion, can be seen on chest radiograph.
Positron emission tomography
In this test (PET, for its acronym in English) were given glucose (sugar) radiation to determine whether cancer. Because cancers use glucose (sugar) at a higher rate than normal tissues, the radioactivity will tend to concentrate in cancer. A reading device (scanner) can detect the radioactive deposits. This study may be helpful in locating small groups of cancer cells. In some cases, this test has proved useful in detecting ovarian cancer that has spread. It is even more valuable when combined with CT (PET / CT scan). Although PET can help find cancer that has spread, this test is expensive and many insurance companies will not cover the cost.
Your doctor will order blood tests to make sure you have enough red blood cells, white cells and platelets (cells that help stop bleeding). Also performed tests to measure kidney function and liver, as well as general health status. Finally, the doctor will order a CA-125 test. If the level is high, we recommend consultation with a gynecologic oncologist.